Cancer, known medically as a malignant neoplasm. It is a broad group of diseases involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and raise uncontrollably. By this uncontrolled growth forming malignant tumours, and attack nearby parts of the body.
Cancer can be treated in different ways depending on what type of cancer it is, where it is in the human body, and whether it has spread (its stage). You may have more than one type of treatment. Your physicians will discuss with you the best treatment for your condition. When planning your treatment, they will take into account your general health as well as the type and stage of the cancer.
Type of cancer treatments
- Radiation therapy
- Targeted therapies
Non-hematological cancers can be cured if entirely removed by surgery treatment, but this is not possible in all conditions. When the cancer has metastasized to other sites in the body prior to surgery then complete surgical excision is usually impossible. Surgery can be used to treat, diagnose, or even help prevent cancer in some cases. It is the most common cancer treatment. Most people with cancer will have some type of surgery. It frequently offers the greatest chance for cure, if the cancer has not spread to other parts of the body. The goal of the surgery can be either the removal of only the tumour, or the entire organ. Examples of surgical procedures for cancer include mastectomy for breast cancer, lung cancer surgery for non-small cell lung cancer and prostatectomy for prostate cancer.
Radiation therapy is the use of ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumours. This therapy injures or destroys cells in the area being treated by damaging their genetic material and making it impossible for these cells to continue to grow. Though radiation damages both cancer cells and normal cells, normal cells can recover from the effects of radiation and function properly. Radiation therapy cancer treatment may be used to treat almost every type of solid tumour, including cancers of the lung, brain, breast, cervix, larynx, liver, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach, or soft tissue sarcomas. Radiation therapy is also used to treat leukaemia and lymphoma.
Chemotherapy is one kind of cancer treatment in which drugs are used to destroy cancer cells. The thought of having chemotherapy frightens many people. Knowing what chemotherapy is, how it works, and what to expect can often help quiet your worries. It can also give you a better sense of control over your cancer treatment.
Targeted therapy is a newer type of cancer treatment that uses drugs or other substances to more precisely identify and attack cancer cells, generally while doing little damage to normal cells. It is a growing part of many cancer treatment regimen.
Immunotherapy refers to a various set of therapeutic strategies designed to induce the patient’s own immune system to fight the tumour.
The idea of using heat to treat cancer has been around for some time, but early attempts had mixed results. In the present day, newer tools allow more precise delivery of heat, and hyperthermia cancer treatment is being studied for use against many types of cancer.